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Tuesday, September 14, 2010

How Do I Find, Install, and Update Apps on my Android Phone?

The Android Market is one of the best features of the android experience. It’s a place where users find and download free and for-sale applications (apps) that do everything from explore the phone’s file system to tune a guitar. The apps mentioned several posts ago are a small sampling of what's available, so it’s a good idea to learn to use the Market right away.

The Market can be accessed via a Market app on the Android device itself or via the Market page on the web from any computer. Users can find and install apps from either source, and they can uninstall apps from the phone in a number of ways. A few other apps, such as betas and older versions, may be installed using a USB cable and file manager, like Astro by Metago, or app installer, like Easy Installer by InfoLife or Fast App Installer by Faststring.

Getting to the Market App on the Phone

To go into the Market app on the phone, do the following:

1. Unlock the screen if necessary.
2. From the Home screen, get to the Applications list.
a. From the stock home screen, navigate to and press the selector on All Applications or on Sliding Drawer.
b. From the Eyes-Free Shell, down-stroke to the 8 position.
c. From the Mobile Accessibility main screen, swipe or scroll to Apps; then double-tap or press enter.
3. Navigate to Market and open it.
a. If you're using the stock home screen, keep in mind that apps are arranged alphabetically in a grid, so you need to scroll both vertically and horizontally. Press the enter or selector once you find Market.
b. If you're using the Eyes-Free Shell, type the letter M and scroll down to Market and press the selector or the Search key.
c. If you're using Mobile Accessibility, keep in mind that apps are arranged alphabetically. Swipe or arrow horizontally to skip groups of apps or type the letter M to jump to the first app that begins with that letter; then swipe or scroll down to Market and double-tap or press the selector.

Becoming Familiar with the Market App's Main Screen

When the Market app opens, the main screen offers users a short list of suggested apps as well as a set of app categories to browse through. It also includes two buttons, which appear at the top of all Market app screens. These are Go Home and Search.

1. To browse the list of suggested apps, simply arrow down when the Market opens. For a description of an app, user ratings and reviews, and a brief list of similar apps, press the selector. Then press Back to return to the list.
2. To browse by category, navigate to the top of the screen and left-arrow twice over the Search and Go Home buttons. Then down-arrow once and right-arrow. From left to right, options are Applications, Games, and in some cases, a carrier specific button, like Verizon. Right-arrowing one more time returns focus to the suggestions list three or four items from the top.
a. Pressing the selector on Applications opens a mostly alphabetical list of categories such as Business, Lifestyle, and Productivity, with a few sample apps provided for each category. To browse a category, press the selector on it. The list of apps that opens is not organized alphabetically. For a description of an app, user ratings and reviews, and a brief list of similar apps, press the selector. Then press Back to return to the list.
b. Pressing the selector on Games opens a short alphabetical list of categories such as Brain and Puzzle, Racing, and Widgets, with a few sample apps provided for each category. To browse a category, press the selector on it. The list of apps that opens is not organized alphabetically. For a description of an app, user ratings and reviews, and a brief list of similar apps, press the selector. Then press Back to return to the list.
c. Pressing the selector on the carrier specific button opens a nonalphabetical list of apps. Some are connected to the carrier, like visual voice mail, while others are more general, like Skype. For a description of an app, user ratings and reviews, and a brief list of similar apps, press the selector. Then press Back to return to the list.
3. To return to the Market main screen from other places in the Market, navigate to the Go Home button at the top of the screen and press the selector.
4. To start a search, navigate to the Search button at the top of the screen and press the selector. You can also start a search with the Search soft key at the bottom of the touchscreen (portrait) or with any physical Search button on the device.

Searching for Apps Using the Android Market App

Users regularly search for new apps to perform a variety of tasks from audio book listening to YouTube downloading. After activating new devices, they also install many of the apps that are already on the phone in order to receive update notifications. Here’s how it’s done:

1. Unlock the screen if necessary.
2. From the Home screen, go to the Market, using one of the methods below.
a. From the stock home screen, navigate to All Applications and press the selector. Then navigate to Market and press The selector again.
b. From the Eyes-Free Shell, down-stroke to Applications. Then use the physical keyboard to type the letter M, arrow down to Market, and press enter.
c. From the Mobile Accessibility main screen, swipe or scroll down to Apps, double-tap, swipe or scroll to Market, and double-tap again, confirming that you want to leave MA by navigating to OK and double-tapping or pressing the selector if prompted.
3. Once in the Market, run a search using one of these methods:
a. Navigate to the Search button at the top of all Market screens, and press the selector. Type the search term, which may be a word or phrase. Then press enter or the selector. The term may be the name of a developer, a general task, or a broader concept (e.g., Eyes-Free Project, file manager, knitting). For best results, use correct spelling and spacing.
b. Press the Search button on the phone. This may be a soft button on the screen or a physical button. Type the search term, which may be a word or phrase. Then press enter or the selector. The term may be the name of a developer, a general task, or a broader concept (e.g., Eyes-Free Project, file manager, knitting). For best results, use correct spelling and spacing.
c. Press the Menu button on the phone. This may be a soft button on the screen or a physical button. Arrow to and press the selector on Search. Type the search term, which may be a word or phrase. Then press enter or the selector. The term may be the name of a developer, a general task, or a broader concept (e.g., Eyes-Free Project, file manager, knitting). For best results, use correct spelling and spacing.
4. Down- or up-arrow through the results list, and when you find an interesting item, press The selector to arrow through a description, some user ratings and reviews, and a short list of similar apps.
5. If you like the app, proceed to Installation. If not, press the Back button and continue navigating through the results list. Back may be a soft button on the touch screen or a physical control.

Becoming Familiar with the Review Screen on the Market App for Apps not on the Phone

The review screen opens when users press enter or the selector on an app. It contains a description of the app as well as other useful information. The screen is easier to explore with a d-pad or arrow keys as most of the items are found by arrowing up and down. Trackball and trackpad users may need to move focus in various directions. The following list assumes a d-pad or arrow keys are being used:

• When the review screen opens, focus is on a short description of the app, which the phone reads automatically. It is not possible to read this description line by line.
• The Go Home and Search buttons are to the left of the description.
• The Free or Price button used during installation is both below Go Home and Search and to the left of the description.
• The first More button is below the description. In theory, pressing it yields more information about the app, but it rarely does.
• Three unlabeled buttons are next as focus moves down. They sometimes appear to line up vertically, and other times appear as two side by side with one above or below them.
• A Share button is below the three unlabeled buttons, allowing users to share the direct Market link to the app via email, Facebook, Twitter, and text message.
• Three user reviews and the second More button are below Share, allowing users to find out what other people think of the app.
• Three similar apps and the third More button come next. These are generally applications that have roughly the same function as the app being considered. If the description screen is for an app that lets users know of upcoming baseball games and tracks their scores, these apps also offer baseball game listings, scores, or other stats.
• The View More Apps button is next. It allows users to scroll through apps that are related, but not quite similar. If the description screen is for an app that lets users know of upcoming baseball games and tracks their scores, these apps may provide similar information for other sports or offer sports news in general.
• Email the Developer is the next item down. Pressing the selector here opens K-9 Mail and puts the developer's email address in the To field. To continue with the message, users simply arrow down to the Subject line and proceed.
• Visit the Developer's Webpage is the second to last item. Pressing enter here opens Ideal Web Reader on the developer's website.
• Flag as Inappropriate is at the bottom of the screen, enabling users to contact Google if they think an app has objectionable content.

Installing Free Apps from the Android Market App

Once an app is identified, it needs to be installed on the phone. Whether the app is free or for-sale, the download and installation process is basically the same. This section describes how free apps are installed.

1. Using the steps in earlier sections of this post, find the app to be downloaded, and open the review screen, which displays the description and user reviews.
2. Left-arrow from the app description to the word "Free. Sometimes arrowing left moves focus directly to this button. Other times, moving left moves focus to Go Home and Search; if focus moves to either of these, left arrow twice, then down-arrow once. Note: " If the app is for sale, the price of the app takes the place of the Free button. finding the Free/Price button takes practice for users with trackpads.
3. Press the selector on Free.
4. The Permissions screen opens. It describes the parts of the phone that may be accessed by the app. To hear all of the permissions, press the selector on Permissions, which has focus, and press the Back button when done; otherwise, skip this step.
5. Left-arrow to and press the selector on the OK button to start the installation. Sometimes arrowing left moves focus directly to this button. Other times, moving left moves focus to Go Home and Search; if focus moves to either of these, left arrow twice, then down-arrow once. Note: finding OK takes practice for users with trackpads.
6. Wait for installation. The phone emits a series of vibrational bursts while the app downloads and installs. When the process is complete, Talkback announces that the app has been successfully installed, and focus moves back to the app list in the Market.
7. Either continue scrolling through the results list or press Back several times or Home to return to the Home screen. Back and Home may be soft buttons on the touch screen or physical controls on the handset.

Finding the Review Screen for Apps that are already on the Phone

Once an app has been installed, users can quickly access its review or description screen from the Android Market. This is useful as update notes are often posted on this screen.

To find the review screen for an app that is already on the phone, do the following:

1. Launch the Market app.
2. Press the Menu button.
3. Navigate to and press the selector on My Apps.
4. Down-arrow through the list of apps, pressing the selector on the one whose description screen you want to read.

Becoming Familiar with the Review Screen for Apps That are Already Installed

Once an app has been installed, additional information appears on the review screen, including the Update Automatically checkbox and features for rating or commenting on the app. The screen is easier to explore with a d-pad or arrow keys as most of the items are found by arrowing up and down. Trackball and trackpad users may need to move focus in various directions.

The following list assumes a d-pad or arrow keys are being used:

• The Update Automatically checkbox is often at the top of the review screen. Checking this box starts the update when you launch the My Apps list. It isn't present for all apps, and it doesn't always work as promised, but it works most of the time. Focus may be on this button when the screen opens; more often, however, focus is on the app description.
• Rate It is below the Auto Update box. This item allows you to rate the app. Pressing the selector here moves focus to a screen with three controls: OK, Cancel, and an item that produces no spoken feedback. This last is a slider with 6 items, starting at No Rating (on the left) and ending at 5 (on the right). When you arrow to it, focus is on No Rating. Each time you press the right-arrow from that spot, focus moves to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, but no spoken or vibrational feedback is produced. If you continue to right-arrow from 5 or to left-arrow from No Rating, focus does not move. To submit a Market rating, arrow to the number you want by counting presses of the arrow key; then use the down-arrow to move to and press the selector on OK.
• Post A comment is the item below Rate It, but it appears only if you have rated the app. Pressing it opens an edit field for a short comment. Below the edit field are OK and Cancel buttons. To submit a comment, type in the edit field; then arrow to OK and press the selector.
• The short description of the app is next as you arrow down. Focus is often on the description when the review screen opens, and the phone reads it automatically. Update notes are often included on this screen so it's a good idea to read it before updating an app. Reading this description line by line is not possible.
• The go Home and Search buttons are to the left of whatever is at the top of the screen. Left-arrowing from the top item moves from Search to Go Home, but right-arrowing from Go Home moves focus to Open.
• Open is both below Go Home and Search and to the left of the items near the top of the screen. This is used to launch the app. If an update is available, Open turns into the Update button and is used to start the update.
• Uninstall is below Open and to the left of the description. Pressing the selector here uninstalls the app from the phone. Left-arrowing from Uninstall moves focus to the Go Home button; right-arrowing from that button moves focus to Search, then to the main list of items on the review screen.
• The first More button is below the description. In theory, pressing it yields more information about the app, but it rarely does.
• Three unlabeled buttons are next as focus moves down.
• A Share button follows, allowing users to share the direct Market link to the app via email, Facebook, Twitter, and text message.
• Three user reviews and the second More button are below Share, allowing users to find out what other people think of the app.
• Three similar apps and the third More button come next. These are generally applications that have roughly the same function as the app being considered. If the description screen is for an app that lets users know of upcoming baseball games and tracks their scores, these apps also offer baseball game listings, scores, or other stats.
• The View More Apps button is next. It allows users to scroll through apps that are related, but not quite similar. If the description screen is for an app that lets users know of upcoming baseball games and tracks their scores, these apps may provide similar information for other sports or offer sports news in general.
• Email the Developer is the next item down. Pressing the selector here opens K-9 Mail and puts the developer's email address in the To field. To continue with the message, users simply arrow down to the Subject line and proceed.
• Visit the Developer's Webpage is the second to last item down. Pressing enter here opens Ideal Web Reader on the developer's website.
• Flag as Inappropriate is at the bottom of the screen, enabling users to contact Google if they think an app contains objectionable material.

Checking for Updates

Once apps are installed, they need to be updated periodically. This is done on the phone itself, not on the Market website. The phone lets users know that updates are available in two ways. Updates are included in the system notifications; if the phone has been idle for a while, the phone reports accurate information after a minute or so of use. Updates are also listed in the Market app itself. In both cases, users must go into the Market app to find out which apps are to be updated.

To check for updates, do one of the following:

1. Check notifications in the usual way, using one of the methods below. Pressing the selector on the one that tells you updates are available launches the Market app and moves focus to the list of apps that are to be updated.
a. From any android Screen, touch the top of the screen; then slide your finger down, stopping when your screen reader says, "Status bar" or "Notifications." Lift your finger, and use your navigational controller to scroll through the notifications. The phone announces that updates are available, but it does not usually list the specific apps. (this does not work while in the MA suite.)
b. From the stock home screen, press Menu, then navigate to and press the selector on Notifications. Use your physical navigational controller to scroll through notifications. The phone announces that updates are available, but it does not usually list the specific apps.
c. From the MA suite, triple tap or press Menu. Then swipe or scroll down to System Notifications, and double tap or press the selector, scrolling through the notifications. The phone announces that updates are available, but it does not usually list the specific apps.
2. Check My Apps.
a. Launch the Market app, using the steps described in an earlier section of this post.
b. Press Menu.
c. Navigate to and press the selector on My Apps.

Focus is now on the list of apps that have been installed or updated from the Market. The ones with updates are automatically moved to the top of the list, and the screen reader speaks the app name followed by the word, "update."

Updating Apps Using the Android Market App

The update process is similar to installation. In some cases, updates are handled automatically when the My Apps list is accessed. In other cases, users must update manually. There are two methods, referred to here as the short method and the long method. Both are simple, though many users have difficulty finding some of the buttons of the long method. Again, updates are done on the phone, not on the Market website.

Short Update

1. Open the Market app, press Menu, navigate to and press the selector on My Apps. Apps for which updates are available are moved to the top of the list, and the word "update" is spoken after the app name. If more than one app has an update, an Update All button appears above the list of apps. While you can move to this button with the arrow keys, you cannot activate it with the selector. You can, however, touch the Update All button on the screen. If the phone is in landscape orientation, the Update All button is located halfway between the right and left edges of the screen and about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the top edge.
2. Scroll to the app to be updated.
3. Long-press the selector; then navigate to and press the selector on Update. Options are Details, Open, Uninstall, and Update. Update is not present if no update is available.
4. Wait for the update to install. The phone vibrates during the download and installation. A few seconds (no more than 10 to 15) after the phone stops vibrating, the screen reader announces that the update is complete.
5. Focus returns to the My Apps list.
6. Check status bar notifications to make sure installation is successful. One notification should be the app name followed by a phrase like "Updated successfully" or "Update unsuccessful." Try updating again if installation fails.
7. Continue with another update, or press Back several times or Home to return to the home screen.

Long Method

1. Open the Market app, press Menu, navigate to and press the selector on My Apps. Apps for which updates are available are moved to the top of the list, and the word "update" is spoken after the app name. If more than one app has an update, an Update All button appears above the list of apps. While you can move to this button with the arrow keys, you cannot activate it with the selector. You can, however, touch the Update All button on the screen. If the phone is in landscape orientation, the Update All button is located halfway between the right and left edges and about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the top edge
2. Scroll to the app to be updated.
3. Short-press The selector to open the review screen, which displays the description and user reviews.
4. Left-arrow from the app description or the Update automatically checkbox to the Update button. Sometimes arrowing left moves focus directly to this button. Other times, moving left moves focus to the Uninstall button; if focus moves to Uninstall, up-arrow once to Update. Note: finding this button takes practice for users with trackpads.
5. Press the selector on Update.
6. The Permissions screen opens. It describes the parts of the phone that may be accessed by the app. To hear all of the permissions, press the selector on Permissions, which has focus, and press the Back button when done; otherwise, skip this step.
7. Left-arrow to and press the selector on the OK button to start the update. Sometimes arrowing left moves focus directly to this button. Other times, arrowing left moves focus to the Uninstall button; if focus moves to Uninstall, up-arrow once. Note: finding this button takes practice for users with trackpads.
8. The Replace Application screen opens, asking whether you want the new version to replace the version on your phone.
9. Press the selector on OK to confirm that you want to go ahead with the update. Focus is already on the OK button; there is no need to arrow anywhere.
10. Wait for the update to install. The phone vibrates during the download and installation.
11. Focus returns to the My Apps list.
12. Check status bar notifications to make sure the update is successful. One notification should be the app name followed by a phrase like "Updated successfully" or "Update unsuccessful." Try updating again if installation fails.
13. Continue with another update, or press Back several times or Home to return to the home screen.

Searching for Apps on the Online Android Market

Android apps can also be found using the computer, rather than the phone. The process is relatively simple and quick; however, the website does not quite behave predictably for Windows users, so the process does not seem simple and quick until the second or third visit.

1. On the computer, visit the Android Market website at https://Market.Android.com/.
2. Use your screen reader to find the Search edit box, which is the only edit box on the screen.
3. Type an app name or key word, and press enter to start the search. For best results, type quickly; otherwise, the screen tries to refresh after each key press, slowing the typing process down considerably. If pressing enter doesn't work, tab to the unlabeled Search button near the edit field, and press enter again. There is also a dropdown list below the Search edit field for users to scroll through, but since the page refreshes with each press of the arrow keys, using it is not as convenient as expected.
4. Scroll through the results list.
a. Use your screen reader to skip through the 4 headings at the top of the page: Type, Price, Device Compatibility, and Sort. Then arrow down through the results displayed.
b. Manually scroll down the page. No blank lines, keywords, headings, or graphics signal the beginning of a new entry, so there is no way to quickly navigate through the list of results.
c. Press enter on Next or on one of the numbers at the end of the list if you want to scroll through more results. Some screen readers do not announce, "link," on these.
5. Press enter on the name of an app you want to know more about.
6. Read the information on the new screen. It has a number of headings: the name of the app, More from Developer, Related, About This App, Description, App Screenshots, User Reviews, and 3 user reviews. The most helpful information is under the About This App and Description Headings. About This App includes details about how much the app costs, which versions of Android it runs on, when the app was last updated, and what version of the app is available. Description explains what the app does and often includes information about recent updates or fixes.
7. Return to the previous screen to continue browsing, or proceed to installation.

Installing Apps from the Online Android Market

The Android Market website can also be used to install apps without the need for USB cables. The website itself is accessible, but it's a little slow to refresh, so users can experience frustration if they attempt to locate or activate a control before the page is ready.

1. Use the steps in the previous section to find an app, and press enter on the name of the app to open the page with the About This App and Description headings.
2. Down-arrow from the name of the app heading to the Install link, and press enter.
3. Sign in to your Google Account if prompted by the computer. If you are already signed in, skip to the next step
a. Use your screen reader or browser to find the Sign In link, and press enter.
b. Type your user name and password in the appropriate fields, pressing enter when done. Most likely, your user name is already provided, and focus is in the password field when this page opens.
c. Type your cell number as a security measure, or press enter on the appropriate link to skip this step.
4. Tab to and press enter on the Install button when the screen refreshes. The screen contains a lot of information. When it opens, focus is on an unlabeled button. Tabbing from that button moves focus to two more buttons, labeled Phone and Install. Phone is unavailable if you only have one device associated with the account. Pressing enter on Install starts the download. Note that the screen reader command for jumping to the next/previous button may not be successful on this page.
5. Wait for installation. The phone vibrates during download and installation. A few seconds (no more than 10 to 15) after the phone stops vibrating, the screen reader announces that installation is complete.
6. On the phone, check status bar notifications to make sure installation is successful. One notification should be the app name followed by a phrase like "installed successfully" or "installation unsuccessful." Try updating again if installation fails.
7. On the computer, return to the previous screen to continue browsing.

Installing Non-Market Apps or APK Files from the Phone's SD Card

Sometimes users want to install betas or other apps that are not available on the Android Market. These apps have .apk file extensions and can be downloaded to the phone's SD card via a USB cable or Dropbox. In either case, the actual installation happens with the help of a file manager app, like Astro by Metago, or an app installer, like Easy Installer by InfoLife or Faststring. The process involves three general phases: preparing the phone, transferring the file, and installing the app.

1. Prepare the phone by going into Settings/Applications and checking the Allow Non-Market Apps box. This option may not be available to customers of certain carriers. Press Back several times or Home to return to the Home screen.
2. Download the apk file to your computer, and copy it to the phone. Download the file using the usual procedure for your operating system. It's possible that the file has an extension of .xip or something other when it arrives. If this happens, use your computer's Rename feature to change the file extension back to .apk. Once the file is ready, transfer it to the SD Card by doing one of the following:
a. Copy the file to the phone's SD Card as you would copy files to any thumb drive. Plug the phone into the computer with the USB cable that comes with the phone. In some cases, the phone is recognized by the computer, and you can begin copying files immediately. If you are not able to do so, go into notifications on the phone (by unlocking the screen, sliding a finger from the top edge to the bottom, and scrolling through the notifications). Then navigate to and press the selector on USB, Connect, or Turn On, depending on your handset and Android version. Finally, navigate to and press the selector on Mount SD Card or turn ON. All steps may not be necessary. Stop when you hear the connection chime on your computer. Copy the files from your computer to your SD card. When you're done, follow your computer's procedure for safely disconnecting hardware.
b. Use an external card reader. Power the phone down, remove the SD card from the device, and use a card reader to copy the file from your computer. When you're done, insert the SD card back into the phone, and power the device up again.
c. Use Dropbox. On the computer, copy the apk file to the Dropbox folder. On the phone, open the Dropbox app, and use a file manager to move the file from Dropbox to the root directory of the SD card.
3. Follow your file manager's procedure for installing apps. Most likely, this means arrowing to the apk file on the root directory of the SD card, then short-pressing the selector to begin installation or long-pressing the selector for more options. If Install is not an option, find Manage Applications or something similar.

Preparing to Purchase Market Apps

While many Market apps are free, others are for sale, mostly at reasonable prices. Before purchasing any of these apps, blind and visually impaired users must set up a Google Checkout account on their computers, as the Market app screen where credit card details are entered is inaccessible.

To set up a Google Checkout account, do the following:

1. On the computer, visit the Google Check Out site at https://Checkout.Google.com.
2. Sign in by typing your Google ID and password, then tabbing to and pressing enter on the Sign In button. If you are using your own computer, you probably only need to provide your password before activating the button.
3. Check that your email address and country appear near the top of the Welcome-to-Checkout screen, and provide the credit card and billing details required, tabbing to and pressing enter on the Create Account button when all fields have been filled out. Required information includes credit card number, expiration date, CVC, card holder name, billing address, shipping address (if different), and cell phone number. Your screen reader may not automatically read the contents of combo boxes; if this is the case, tab away from the combo box, then return to it.
4. If successful, the next screen shows your payment details and purchase history.

Purchasing Apps from the Market App

After the Google Checkout account is set up, the process of purchasing apps from the Android Market app is similar to installing free apps. The only significant difference is that there are 3 screens associated with the payment method.

Note: once apps are purchased, they can be removed from the phone and reinstalled on the same device or they can be installed on the same user's next device at no additional charge.

1. Using the steps in earlier sections of this post, find the app to be downloaded, and open the review screen, which displays the description and user reviews.
2. Left-arrow from the app description to the price of the app. Sometimes arrowing left moves focus directly to this button. Other times, moving left moves focus to Go Home and Search; if focus moves to either of these, left arrow twice, then down-arrow once. Note: finding the Free/Price button takes practice for users with trackpads.
3. Press the selector on the Price.
4. The Permissions screen opens. It describes the parts of the phone that may be accessed by the app. To hear all of the permissions, press the selector on Permissions, which has focus, and press the Back button when done; otherwise, skip this step.
5. Left-arrow to and press the selector on the OK button to start the installation. Sometimes arrowing left moves focus directly to this button. Other times, moving left moves focus to Go Home and Search; if focus moves to either of these, left arrow twice, then down-arrow once. Note: finding OK takes practice for users with trackpads.
6. Select a payment method. The phone announces the name and price of the app, and the screen displays the credit card associated with the device and the option to charge to the phone bill if that is available. Scroll to the payment method you want, and press the selector.
7. Press the selector on the credit card to check it, and navigate to and press the selector on OK, which is at the bottom of the screen. This screen also includes an option to add another credit card, but this is best done on the computer. A Cancel button is to the right of OK.
8. Scroll through the terms and conditions, and navigate to and press the selector on Buy Now to complete the purchase.
9. Wait for installation. A receipt is sent to the Gmail account associated with the phone. If there are no problems with the order, installation begins; otherwise, the email explains what the difficulty is. During download and installation, the phone vibrates. A few seconds (no more than 10 to 15) after the phone stops vibrating, the screen reader announces that installation is complete.
10. Check status bar notifications to make sure installation is successful. One notification should be the app name followed by a phrase like "installed successfully."
11. Either continue scrolling through the results list or press Back several times or Home to return to the Home screen. Back and Home may be soft buttons on the touch screen or physical controls on the handset.

Purchasing Apps from the Online Android Market

After the Google Checkout account is set up, the process of purchasing apps from the Market website is similar to installing free apps. The website itself is accessible, but it's a little slow to refresh, so users can experience frustration if they attempt to locate or activate a control before the page is ready.

Note: once apps are purchased, they can be removed from the phone and reinstalled on the same device or they can be installed on the same user's next device at no additional charge.

1. Use the steps in an earlier section of this post to find an app on the online Android Market, and press enter on the name of the app to open the page with the About This App and Description headings.
2. Down-arrow from the name of the app heading to the price, which is a link, and press enter. This takes the place of the Install link.
3. Tab to and press enter on the Continue button when the screen refreshes. The screen contains a lot of information. When it opens, focus is on an unlabeled button. Tabbing from that button moves focus to three more items: a Phone button, a Refund Policy link, and a Continue button. Down-arrowing several times from these buttons moves focus to Cancel, which may not be announced as a link, but which cancels if enter is pressed on it. Phone is unavailable if you only have one device associated with the account. Note that the screen reader command for jumping to the next/previous button may not be successful on this page.
4. Type your user name and password on the new screen to confirm that you are the user of the account, pressing enter when done. Most likely, your user name is already provided, and focus is in the password field when this page opens. The screen also includes a Stay-Signed-In checkbox.
5. Read the information on the following page, and complete the purchase.
a. On your first purchase, the screen displays the name of the app, its price, the sales tax (if applicable), the payment method (credit card or cell phone bill), Googles terms of service (which are very lengthy), an I-have-read-and-accept-these-documents checkbox, and a Complete-Purchase button. Check the box to indicate that you have read and accepted the terms by pressing the spacebar, and press enter on the Complete Purchase button.
b. On subsequent purchases, the screen displays the name of the app, its price, the sales tax (if applicable), the payment method (credit card or cell phone bill), and a Complete-Purchase button. Press enter on the Complete Purchase button.
6. Wait for installation. A receipt is sent to the Gmail account associated with the phone. If there are no problems with the order, installation begins; otherwise, the email explains what the difficulty is. During download and installation, the phone vibrates. A few seconds (no more than 10 to 15) after the phone stops vibrating, the screen reader announces that installation is complete.
7. On the phone, check status bar notifications to make sure installation is successful. One notification should be the app name followed by a phrase like "installed successfully."
8. On the computer, return to the previous screen to continue browsing.

Uninstalling Apps Using the Android Market App

The Android Market app offers two methods for uninstalling apps. They are comparable to the short and long update methods.

Short Uninstallation

1. Open the Market app, press Menu, navigate to and press the selector on My Apps.
2. Scroll to the app to be uninstalled.
3. Long-press the selector; then navigate to and press the selector on Uninstall. Options are Details, Open, Uninstall, and Update. Update is present only if an update is available.
4. Let the developer know why you are uninstalling the app.
a. The phone speaks "Not checked" 4 times. When it is done, scroll down through the options and press the selector on one to check it. Options are "I don't use or want it," "I need more space on my phone," "It's defective," "It's Malicious," and "I'd rather not say." If you start scrolling to soon, the screen appears to be blank.
b. After checking your reason, scroll to the bottom of the list and press the selector on OK.
5. Wait for the app to uninstall. The phone vibrates during the process. A few seconds (no more than 5 to 10) after the phone stops vibrating, the screen reader announces that the app has been uninstalled.
6. Focus returns to the My Apps list.
7. Scroll through the My Apps list or check the All Applications section of your home screen to make sure the app has been uninstalled.
8. If the app is still on the phone, try force closing the app from within System Settings. For general information on managing applications from within System Settings, refer to the next section of this post.
9. Press Back several times or Home to return to the home screen.

Long Method

1. Open the Market app, press Menu, navigate to and press the selector on My Apps.
2. Scroll to the app to be uninstalled.
3. Short-press The selector to open the review screen, which displays the description and user reviews.
4. Left-arrow from the app description or the Update automatically checkbox to the Uninstall button. Sometimes arrowing left moves focus directly to this button. Other times, moving left moves focus to the Open or Update button; if focus moves to Open or Update, down-arrow once to Uninstall. Note: finding this button takes practice for users with trackpads.
5. Press the selector on Uninstall.
6. Confirm that you wish to uninstall the app. The phone announces that the app will be uninstalled and that it can be reinstalled from the Market at any time. Navigate to and press the selector on the OK button. Options are OK and Cancel.
7. Let the developer know why you are uninstalling the app.
a. The phone speaks "Not checked" 4 times. When it is done, scroll down through the options and press the selector on one to check it. Options are "I don't use or want it," "I need more space on my phone," "It's defective," "It's Malicious," and "I'd rather not say." If you start scrolling to soon, the screen appears to be blank.
b. After checking your reason, scroll to the bottom of the list and press the selector on OK.
8. Wait for the app to uninstall. The phone vibrates during the process. A few seconds (no more than 5 to 10) after the phone stops vibrating, the screen reader announces that the app has been uninstalled.
9. Focus returns to the My Apps list.
10. Scroll through the My Apps list or check the All Applications section of your home screen to make sure the app has been uninstalled.
11. If the app is still on the phone, try force closing the app from within System Settings. For general information on managing applications from within System Settings, refer to the next section of this post.
12. Press Backseveral times or Home to return to the home screen.

Uninstalling Apps from Within System Settings

Another way to uninstall apps is by going into system settings.

1. Go into Settings.
a. From the stock home screen, navigate to and press the selector on All Applications or Sliding Drawer; then navigate to and press the selector on Settings.
b. From the Eyes-Free Shell, down-stroke to the 8 position, type the letter S, and press enter, Search, or the selector.
c. From the Mobile Accessibility home screen, swipe to and double-tap on Apps, then on Settings.
2. Navigate to and press the selector on Applications.
3. Navigate to and press the selector on Manage Applications.
4. Go into the Downloaded tab. After you press the selector on Manage applications, focus moves to a series of tabs: Downloaded, Running, All, On SD card. Scroll left and right to move from tab to tab. On some handsets, scroll down to enter a tab. On others, press the selector on the tab to enter it. On still others, the tabs are unlabeled. If this last is the case, it doesn't matter if you access the app in the Downloaded, Running, or All tab.
5. Navigate to and press the selector on the app you want to uninstall. This opens a details screen, which allows you to perform a series of tasks including force close. When a Market app does not uninstall, the likely cause is that it needs to be stopped.
6. Navigate to and press the selector on the Uninstall button. The phone may announce, "Package Installer," at this point.
7. Press the selector on OK to confirm that you want to uninstall. Options are OK and Cancel.
8. Press the selector on OK again when the process is complete. There is no other option.

Uninstalling Apps Using the Eyes-Free Shell

Apps can also be uninstalled directly from the Eyes-Free Shell.

1. Down-stroke to the 8-position to launch the Applications Widget.
2. Navigate to the app you want to uninstall by scrolling, typing the first letter of the app name and arrowing if necessary, or stroke dialing. Do not open the app.
3. Press the menu button.
4. Arrow to and press the selector on Uninstall. The phone may announce, "Package Installer" or "Eyes-Free Shell," at this point.
5. Press the selector on OK to confirm that you want to uninstall. Options are OK and Cancel.
6. Press the selector on OK again when the process is complete. There is no other option.

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